The atrocities of 100 years of Communist rule in China and outside China are recorded in history

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China’s
Bloody Century

By R.J. Rummel

New Brunswick, N.J.:
Transaction Publishers, 1991.

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II. THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

8. The People’s Republic of China: Overview
9. 8,427,000 Victims: The Totalization Period
10.7,474,000 Victims: Collectivization and “The Great Leap Forward”
11. 10,729,000 Victims: The Great Famine and Retrenchment Period
12. 7,731,000 Victims: The “Cultural Revolution”
13. 874,000 Victims: Liberalization

https://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/NOTE2.HTM

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Mao Zedong: Mass murderer…

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The Legacy of Mao Zedong is Mass Murder

Lee Edwards, Ph.D.@LeeWEdwards

Distinguished Fellow in Conservative Thought Lee Edwards is a leading historian of American conservatism and the author or editor of 25 books.

Feb 2nd, 2010

Can you name the greatest mass murderer of the 20th century? No, it wasn’t Hitler or Stalin. It was Mao Zedong.

According to the authoritative “Black Book of Communism,” an estimated 65 million Chinese died as a result of Mao’s repeated, merciless attempts to create a new “socialist” China. Anyone who got in his way was done away with — by execution, imprisonment or forced famine.

For Mao, the No. 1 enemy was the intellectual. The so-called Great Helmsman reveled in his blood-letting, boasting, “What’s so unusual about Emperor Shih Huang of the China Dynasty? He had buried alive 460 scholars only, but we have buried alive 46,000 scholars.” Mao was referring to a major “accomplishment” of the Great Cultural Revolution, which from 1966-1976 transformed China into a great House of Fear.

The most inhumane example of Mao’s contempt for human life came when he ordered the collectivization of China’s agriculture under the ironic slogan, the “Great Leap Forward.” A deadly combination of lies about grain production, disastrous farming methods (profitable tea plantations, for example, were turned into rice fields), and misdistribution of food produced the worse famine in human history.

Deaths from hunger reached more than 50 percent in some Chinese villages. The total number of dead from 1959 to 1961 was between 30 million and 40 million — the population of California.

Rounding up enemies

Only five years later, when he sensed that revolutionary fervor in China was waning, Mao proclaimed the Cultural Revolution. Gangs of Red Guards — young men and women between 14 and 21 — roamed the cities targeting revisionists and other enemies of the state, especially teachers.

Professors were dressed in grotesque clothes and dunce caps, their faces smeared with ink. They were then forced to get down on all fours and bark like dogs. Some were beaten to death, some even eaten — all for the promulgation of Maoism. A reluctant Mao finally called in the Red Army to put down the marauding Red Guards when they began attacking Communist Party members, but not before 1 million Chinese died.

Read more:

https://www.heritage.org/asia/commentary/the-legacy-mao-zedong-mass-murder

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SciencesPo

Chronology of Mass Killings during the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)

Date:  25 August, 2011 Auteur:  Yongyi Song

Chronology of Mass Killings during the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)

Song Yongyi

The Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) was a historical tragedy launched by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). It claimed the lives of several million people and inflicted cruel and inhuman treatments on hundreds of million people. However, 40 years after it ended, the total number of victims of the Cultural Revolution and especially the death toll of mass killings still remain a mystery both in China and overseas. For the Chinese communist government, it is a highly classified “state secret,” although they do maintain statistics for the so-called “abnormal death” numbers all over China. Nevertheless, the government, realizing that the totalitarian regime and the endless power struggles in the CCP Central Committee (CCP CC) were the root cause of the Cultural Revolution, has consistently discounted the significance of looking back and reflecting on this important period of Chinese history. They even forbid Chinese scholars from studying it independently and discourage overseas scholars from undertaking research on this subject in China.

Owing to difficulties that scholars in and outside China encounter in accessing “state secrets,” the exact figure of the “abnormal death” has become a recurring debate in the field of China studies. Estimates by various scholars range from one-half to eight million. According to Rummel’s 1991 analysis of, the figure should be around 7.73 million (Rummel, 1991: 253). In the following year, however, Harvard scholar John K. Fairbank arrived at a rough estimate of around one million (Fairbank, 1992: 402). Several years later, Ding Shu, an overseas Chinese scholar, disagreed with Rummel’s conclusion by using diverse analyses, and estimated the figure to be around two to three million (Ding, 1999: 214). Recently, Andrew Walder and Su Yang contributed a much more detailed analysis of the death toll in China’s rural areas based upon statistics drawn from 1,500 Chinese county annals. In their estimate, “the number killed [was] between 750,000 and 1.5 million, with roughly equal numbers permanently injured” (Walder and Su, 2003). In a newly published biography of Mao Zedong by two UK authors, the estimated totality of death is discussed: “at least 3 million people died violent deaths and post-Mao leaders acknowledged that 100 million people, one-ninth of the entire population, suffered in one way or another” (Chang and Halliday, 2005: 547). Interestingly, the reporter of a Hong Kong-based political journal released the classified official statistics, according to which nearly two million Chinese were killed and another 125 million were either persecuted or “struggled against”(subjected to “struggle sessions”) as a result of the state-sponsored killings and atrocities committed during the Cultural Revolution (Cheng Min, 1996: 21-22). The average death toll based on the aforementioned six investigators’ figures is nearly 2.95 million. Considering that the Cultural Revolution took place in China during a period when it was not invaded by other states, the number of victims estimated above is extremely high.

The widespread phenomenon of mass killings in the Cultural Revolution consisted of five types: 1) mass terror or mass dictatorship encouraged by the government – victims were humiliated and then killed by mobs or forced to commit suicide on streets or other public places; 2) direct killing of unarmed civilians by armed forces; 3) pogroms against traditional “class enemies” by government-led perpetrators such as local security officers, militias and mass; 4) killings as part of political witch-hunts (a huge number of suspects of alleged conspiratorial groups were tortured to death during investigations); and 5) summary execution of captives, that is, disarmed prisoners from factional armed conflicts. The most frequent forms of massacres were the first four types, which were all state-sponsored killings. The degree of brutality in the mass killings of the Cultural Revolution was very high. Usually, the victims perished only after first being humiliated, struggled and then imprisoned for a long period of time.

https://www.sciencespo.fr/mass-violence-war-massacre-resistance/en/document/chronology-mass-killings-during-chinese-cultural-revolution-1966-1976.html

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China and Tibet

1.2 million Tibetans
Tibet was invaded by 35,000 Chinese troops who systematically raped, tortured and murdered an estimated as many as 1.2 million Tibetans – one-fifth of the country’s population. Since then, over 6000 monasteries have been destroyed and thousands of Tibetans have been imprisoned.22 Mar 2017
What Is The Conflict Between Tibet & China? Know About It

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Inner Mongolia incident1967–1969Inner Mongolia16,632 – 100,000[42]Mostly Mongols.

The Inner Mongolia incident (Chinese: 内人党事件), or Inner Mongolia People’s Revolutionary Party purge incident (内蒙古人民革命党肃清事件), was a massive political purge during the Cultural Revolution in Inner Mongolia.[1][2] The purge was supported by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and was led by Teng Haiqing, a lieutenant general (zhong jiang) of the People’s Liberation Army.[2][3] It took place from 1967 to 1969 during which over a million people were categorized as members of the already-dissolved Inner Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (PRP), while lynching and direct massacre resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands, most of whom were Mongols.[1][2][4][5][6][7][8]

According to the official complaint from the Supreme People’s Procuratorate in 1980 after the Cultural Revolution, during the purge, 346,000 people were arrested, 16,222 people were persecuted to death or killed directly, and over 81,000 were permanently injured and disabled.[1][4][5][8][9][10] Other estimates have put a death toll between 20,000 and 100,000, while hundreds of thousands were arrested and persecuted, and over a million people were affected.[2][4][5][7][8][9][11][12]

After the Cultural Revolution, the purge was regarded as a “mistake” and its victims were rehabilitated by the Communist Party of China (CPC) during the “Boluan Fanzheng” period, but the commander of the purge, Teng Haiqing, received no trial or legal punishment at all because the Central Committee of CPC thought he had made achievements during the wars in the past.[1][2][5][13][14] On the other hand, some of Teng’s affiliates received various terms of imprisonment, with a main Mongol affiliate sentenced to 15 years in prison.[8]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inner_Mongolia_incident

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In its 100 years, who has China’s Communist Party purged?

Political purges are a feature of CCP’s long history. Here are the stories of the most prominent insiders who fell from grace.

2 Jul 2021

The Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) 100-year history is not just one of revolution and rejuvenation, but also ruthlessness.

From Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution to Deng Xiaoping’s Tiananmen Square crackdown and Xi Jinping’s anti-corruption crusade, leaders of the CCP have not hesitated to take whatever steps they deem necessary to secure and remain in power.

Nowhere is this more evident than in the cases of purged party insiders.

From Peng Dehuai, the general who was tortured for opposing Mao’s disastrous economic policies, to Zhao Ziyang, the premier erased from history for seeking compromise with protesters when Deng favoured guns and tanks, and Zhou Yongkang, the ex-security chief who reportedly threatened Xi’s ascent only to get jailed for corruption – political purges are a time-honoured CCP tradition.

Here are some of the most prominent figures who were purged:

Peng Dehuai

One of China’s greatest military leaders, Peng fell from grace when he criticised Mao’s Great Leap Forward, an economic programme in the late 1950s that aimed to push China into the industrial age by collectivising agriculture and creating steel in backyard furnaces, but ended up with as many as 30 million people starving to death.

Peng – who had led Chinese forces in the Korean war and signed the armistice that ended hostilities – was appointed defence minister in 1954. But he was dismissed from office after he called policies of the Great Leap Forward impractical.

He was also one of the first victims of the Cultural Revolution, a campaign of extreme violence launched in 1966 when fanatical Red Guards loyal to Mao set out to destroy all vestiges of China’s feudal culture and root out the chairman’s perceived enemies.

Peng was arrested in 1966, imprisoned and tortured, with Red Guards beating him until his back was “splintered”, according to the People’s Daily. He died in 1974 while held in solitary confinement.

Liu Shaoqi

Once considered the heir apparent to Mao, Liu was another prominent victim of the Cultural Revolution.

Liu, who replaced Mao as the Chinese head of state in 1959, was condemned by the Red Guards as a “renegade, traitor, scab” and a “capitalist roader” intent on defeating the Communist revolution. In 1968, he was stripped of his positions and expelled from the party.

He died in 1969, but his death was not announced until 1974.

For more:

https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/7/2/in-its-100-years-who-has-china-communist-party-purged

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Opinion

A Century of Misery for the Chinese Communist Party | Opinion

Marco Rubio , Republican senator, Florida
On 6/30/21 at 12:00 PM EDT

Today marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The CCP will ensure that the occasion is met with pomp and circumstance in order to maintain a thin veneer of legitimacy. But nobody should forget the long history of the CCP’s atrocities and the persistent dark side of its heavy-handed rule.

The evil nature dates back to the party’s origins. The CCP rose to power just as it has remained there: through deception. In 1924, it entered an alliance with China’s then-reigning Nationalist Party government, whom it quickly betrayed before dragging the nation into a 15-year civil war.

Starting in the 1930s, the CCP conspired with Japanese invaders to take down China’s government. It pretended to join the nationalist government in a “United Front” against the Japanese, a feint it then exploited to sell critical intelligence to Tokyo. This is the same CCP that gives incessant lip service to Chinese nationalism today.

The CCP rose to power through indiscriminate acts of violence and cruelty. After the Second World War, the CCP again betrayed the Nationalist government and launched a nationwide campaign of destruction. In 1948, the CCP prevented civilians from leaving the besieged city of Changchun, which resulted in 160,000 starving to death.

The CCP will say or do anything to expand its power. Nothing is off limits, and nothing is sacred. This has been clear from the very beginning, and yet all these years later, the world still struggles to grasp its implications.

Once the CCP successfully took charge, it attacked virtually anyone with ties to the former Nationalist government. At least 5 million civilians met an early grave during the CCP’s first tyrannical decade.

As bleak as the first few years were, the worst was yet to come. In 1958, CCP Chairman Mao Zedong initiated the “Great Leap Forward,” a harebrained plan to rapidly industrialize the Chinese economy. He herded hundreds of millions of laborers into work communes and seized control of every lever of the economy. Everything was collectivized, and food was rationed.

The result was the worst famine in history. As one historian put it, “China descended into hell.” At least 45 million people died, with starvation so widespread that many resorted to cannibalism.

The CCP knew exactly what was happening. Mao rebuffed reports of famine, purged officials who raised concerns and ordered those who remained to double down.

In any given year of the famine, the CCP incarcerated at least 8 to 9 million people in gulags where forced labor, torture and political indoctrination were the norm. At least 3 million died of starvation and disease in these barbaric houses of horror.

The CCP has conspired for decades to transform and destroy local identities in Tibet and now Xinjiang. These campaigns of cultural erasure have slowly stripped Tibetans, Uyghurs and other ethnic groups of their culture, language, faith and way of life. The ongoing mass internment and genocide in Xinjiang today is the latest and most egregious manifestation of this campaign.

After the famine ended in 1962, Mao managed to retain power for more than a decade by waging his infamous “Cultural Revolution.” The result was an indiscriminate war on all things traditional, targeting intellectuals, businessmen, religious leaders and others.

The campaign created mass hysteria and unthinkable violence, with constant “struggle sessions” against those suspected of disloyalty to the CCP. Mobs of radicals would drag innocents into the public square, accuse them of political crimes and beat them, often to death.

Victims were forced to stand in the burning sun, or sometimes kneel on broken glass. People were mutilated, branded with hot irons, doused in gasoline and immolated, and buried alive. The mobs forced husband to turn against wife, brother against sister and parent against child. Two million were killed as the Cultural Revolution tore apart the fabric of Chinese society.

Of course, some insist that the CCP should be judged primarily on its more recent history—not the murderous record of its first three decades in power. They will point to China’s subsequent economic growth and absolve the CCP for Mao’s crimes that left the country in ruins.
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For more:

https://www.newsweek.com/century-misery-chinese-communist-party-opinion-1604714

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September 2018

Reeducation camps, persecution of ethnical and religious minorities, censorship and surveillance of its citizens are some of the atrocities practiced by the Chinese government

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Christian persecution

The government of China has intensified the repression against Christian congregations in its capital, Beijing, as well as in other provinces in the country. These actions consist on destroying crosses, burning Bibles and shutting down churches. Christians are also forced to sign documents renouncing their faith. The aim is to ensure the loyalty of the Chinese people to the Communist Party, which is atheist, therefore eliminating any obstacles to its power over the lives of people.
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Reeducation camps

Huge numbers of the Uyghur population in Xinjiang, in the West of the country – as well as Kazakhs, Kyrgyzes and other minorities – are being detained and subjected to what the State calls “transformation through education”. Thousands of them were locked in camps surrounded by barbed wire, with anti-bomb surfaces, reinforced doors and surveilled rooms, where they are held for weeks or months, in what critics describe as a form of brainwashing, usually with no criminal charges. Although limited to the Xinjiang region, this is the most widespread internment program in the country since the Mao days (1949-1979).

Monitored citizens

With thousands of cameras and billions of code lines, China is building a high technology authoritarian future. Beijing has been adopting technologies such as facial recognition and artificial intelligence to identify and track 1.4 billion people. The government hopes to set up a widespread and unprecedented national surveillance system, with the crucial help of its prosperous technology industry.
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Internet censorship

For years, the Chinese dictatorship has been exerting a digital control with a filtering system known as the Big Firewall, which allows the authorities to limit what people can see online. As Xi Jinping strengthens his power – in March this year the Chinese parliament put an end to the limitations on the number of successive presidential mandates – and intensifies his country’s role in the international arena, China feels more comfortable adopting a rigidly controlled internet. The most widely used social networks around the world are prohibited there: last decade China blocked Google, Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, as well as thousands of other foreign websites. Several sites and platforms have sprung up in the country, offering the same functions, but under the strict Chinese government’s guideline.

Beijing was already satisfied in blocking the content provided by foreign internet companies and policing the internal alternatives which have appeared to fill that void, but now it is pressuring individuals and asking companies to cooperate with its online censorship efforts. And it seems that even the world’s biggest tech company will be taking part in it. With a plan called Dragonfly, Google is testing a censored version of its search engine destined to the Chinese market. Although it is still far from releasing an internet search website in China, the company’s top executives argue it is time the company reentered that market. In 2010 Google left China precisely due to the censorship imposed by the government.

New colonialism?

Beyond its borders, China is building a 21st century empire, in which trade and loans pave the way. In this new wave, countries – usually poor – take advantage of the promise of projects financed by China to improve their infrastructure. But as some falter and the cost of Chinese financing increases, the recipients of this alleged aid begin to question the price they are paying in the long run.

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