The Artemis Accords

..

The Artemis Accords

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Artemis Accords is a non-binding multilateral arrangement between the United States government and other world governments participating in the Artemis program, an American-led effort to return humans to the Moon by 2025, with the ultimate goal of expanding space exploration to Mars and beyond.[9] As of December 2022, 23 countries and one territory have signed the accords, including eight in Europe, seven in Asia, three in North America, two in Oceania, two in Africa, and two in South America.

Drafted by NASA and the U.S. Department of State, the Accords establish a framework for cooperation in the civil exploration and peaceful use of the Moon, Mars, and other astronomical objects.[10] They are explicitly grounded in the United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967, which signatories are obliged to uphold, and cite most major U.N.-brokered conventions constituting space law.[11][12][13][14][note 1]

The Accords were signed on 13 October 2020 by representatives of the national space agencies of eight countries: Australia, Canada, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States.[11] Additional signatories include Ukraine, South Korea, New Zealand, Brazil, Poland, Mexico, Israel, Romania, Bahrain, Singapore, Colombia, France, Saudi Arabia, Rwanda, and Nigeria. The Accords remain open for signature indefinitely, as NASA anticipates other nations will join.[15] Additional signatories to the Accords can choose to directly participate in Artemis program activities or may agree simply to commit to the principles for responsible exploration of the moon that are set out in the Accords.[16]

For more:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemis_Accords

..

The Artemis Accords: International Cooperation in the Era of Space Exploration

27.Jan.2023 9:00 AM . 3 min read

Matthew Gross

Matthew Gross is a senior editor and copy editor for the HIR. He is interested in the Arctic Circle and international diplomacy.

Visions of future space travel usually focus on the utopian facets associated with breaking through the final frontier and exploring the great beyond, but what might happen when the international dynamics on Earth extend beyond the stratosphere? That is the question that the Artemis Accords aims to answer: they are a series of bilateral agreements signed in 2020. The agreements attempt to establish cooperation on a US-led endeavor to bring humans back to the moon by 2025 with the eventual goal of interplanetary exploration. The Artemis Accords are based on several principles including peace, transparency, interoperability, emergency assistance, and minimizing resource conflict. The Artemis Accords currently have 21 party nations, including the United States, who initially drafted the agreements. The most notable nations “involved”, however, are actually two non-parties to the agreement: China and Russia. Although one would hope that the technological progressions associated with space exploration would automatically ameliorate fraught international relationships, the reality is that they might exacerbate existing tensions.isions of future space travel usually focus on the utopian facets associated with breaking through the final frontier and exploring the great beyond, but what might happen when the international dynamics on Earth extend beyond the stratosphere? That is the question that the Artemis Accords aims to answer: they are a series of bilateral agreements signed in 2020. The agreements attempt to establish cooperation on a US-led endeavor to bring humans back to the moon by 2025 with the eventual goal of interplanetary exploration. The Artemis Accords are based on several principles including peace, transparency, interoperability, emergency assistance, and minimizing resource conflict. The Artemis Accords currently have 21 party nations, including the United States, who initially drafted the agreements. The most notable nations “involved”, however, are actually two non-parties to the agreement: China and Russia. Although one would hope that the technological progressions associated with space exploration would automatically ameliorate fraught international relationships, the reality is that they might exacerbate existing tensions.

One potential area of conflict could be the international battle over resource extraction on the moon. The Artemis Accords establish that when nations engage in mining activities on the moon, they do not obtain property rights over the extracted materials. These Accords, however, are not legally binding and are merely a formalized understanding between the parties of the agreement.

Read the rest here:

https://hir.harvard.edu/the-artemis-accords/#:~:text=The%20agreements%20attempt%20to%20establish,assistance%2C%20and%20minimizing%20resource%20conflict.

..

Advertisement
This entry was posted in Uncategorized and tagged . Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s