Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, commonly abbreviated as Xi Jinping Thought,[note 1] is a set of policies and ideas derived from the writings and speeches of Chinese Communist Party General SecretaryXi Jinping. It was first officially mentioned at the 19th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in 2017, in which it was incorporated into Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party. At the First Session of the Thirteenth National People’s Congress on 11 March 2018, the preamble of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China was amended to mention Xi Jinping Thought.
History and developmentEdit
The first official mention of the term was at the 19th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party having gradually been developed since 2012, when Xi became General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (China‘s paramount leader). Some news sources have stated that Xi helped create this ideology together with his close advisor Wang Huning. The first indications of Xi’s platform had came out in a speech titled “Some Questions on Maintaining and Developing Socialism with Chinese Characteristics” given to the newly elected Central Committee on 5 January 2013, and was later published by Central Documents Press and the journal Qiushi.
“Socialism with Chinese Characteristics”Edit
Much of Xi Jinping Thought comes from Xi’s 2013 speech, which focused on Marx and Mao, China’s place in history, strategic competition with capitalist nations, and a plea to adhere to the goals of communism.
In surveying the history of China, Xi argued it is “Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought that guided the Chinese people out of the darkness of that long night and established a New China.” And, as to the future, “the consolidation and development of the socialist system will require its own long period of history… it will require the tireless struggle of generations, up to ten generations.”
On the relationship with capitalist nations, Xi said, “Marx and Engels’ analysis of the basic contradictions in capitalist society is not outdated, nor is the historical materialist view that capitalism is bound to die out and socialism is bound to win.” Xi aimed to reinforce the Marxist view of history, stating: “The fundamental reason why some of our comrades have weak ideals and faltering beliefs is that their views lack a firm grounding in historical materialism.”
Xi showed great interest in why the Soviet Union dissolved, and how to avoid that failure in China:
“Why did the Soviet Union disintegrate? Why did the Soviet Communist Party fall from power? An important reason was that the struggle in the field of ideology was extremely intense, completely negating the history of the Soviet Union, negating the history of the Soviet Communist Party, negating Lenin, negating Stalin, creating historical nihilism and confused thinking. Party organs at all levels had lost their functions, the military was no longer under Party leadership. In the end, the Soviet Communist Party, a great party, was scattered, the Soviet Union, a great socialist country, disintegrated. This is a cautionary tale!”
The concepts behind Xi Jinping Thought were elaborated in Xi’s The Governance of China book series, published by the Foreign Languages Press for an international audience. Volume one was published in September 2014, followed by volume two in November 2017, followed by volume three in June 2020.
- Ensuring Chinese Communist Party leadership over all forms of work in China.
- The Chinese Communist Party should take a people-centric approach for the public interest.
- The continuation of “comprehensive deepening of reforms”.
- Adopting new science-based ideas for “innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development”.
- Following “socialism with Chinese characteristics” with “people as the masters of the country”.
- Governing China with Rule of Law.
- “Practice socialist core values“, including Marxism, communism and socialism with Chinese characteristics.
- “Improving people’s livelihood and well-being is the primary goal of development”.
- Coexist well with nature with “energy conservation and environmental protection” policies and “contribute to global ecological safety”.
- Strengthen the National security of China.
- The Chinese Communist Party should have “absolute leadership over” China’s People’s Liberation Army.
- Promoting the one country, two systems system for Hong Kong and Macau with a future of “complete national reunification” and to follow the One-China policy and 1992 Consensus for Taiwan.
- Establish a common destiny between Chinese people and other people around the world with a “peaceful international environment”.
- Improve party discipline in the Chinese Communist Party.