Qing invasion of Joseon
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The Qing invasion of Joseon occurred in the winter of 1636 when the newly established Manchu-led Qing dynasty invaded the Joseon dynasty, establishing its status as the center of the Imperial Chinese Tributary System and formally severing Joseon’s relationship with the Ming dynasty. The invasion was preceded by the Later Jin invasion of Joseon in 1627.
The kingdom of Joseon continued to show ambivalence toward the Manchus after the Later Jin invasion of Joseon. Later Jin accused Joseon of harboring fugitives and supplying the Ming army with grain. In addition, Joseon did not recognize Hong Taiji‘s newly declared Qing dynasty. The Manchu delegates Inggūldai and Mafuta received a cold reception in Hanseong (Seoul), and King Injo of Joseon refused to meet with them or even send a letter, which shocked the delegates. A warlike message to Pyongan-do was also carelessly allowed to be seized by Inggūldai.